Every nation has rules and regulations to make a system where society can live a life together. Without that, it would be massive chaos where everybody would do what they like to. Some laws regulate social, economic, and political life. It helps to control and give safety to the people.
The same comes for gun laws also known as firearm regulation or gun control. It regulates the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, and use of small arms by civilians.
Some countries have very strict rules for the right to keep and bear arms, while others have a very loose regulation for the possession of guns. Most countries restrict certain types and categories of weapons. Furthermore, they control which people are allowed to have a gun and those who are not. There are different kinds of licenses for purposes like hunting, sport shooting, collecting, self-defense. The licenses usually come with various responsibilities, permissions, and requirements which regulate all details about the use of guns.
Gun laws intend to reduce the misuse of weapons. Countries try to keep the use of small guns in criminal activities low. An example is that people of a certain age or criminal background are not allowed to legally possess a weapon. Civilians with a risk of self-harm, mental illness, depression, substance abuse, alcoholism, or with domestic violence records might be rejected getting the permission of having a gun.
Part of the process to get a license is mostly a gun safety course and proof of safe weapon storage.
The first difference about gun laws is the definition of the terminology firearms.
Taking Yemen and most of the U.S. states as an example for very liberal use of guns, they do not require any permit for the acquisition of a majority of types of firearms. That means that everybody who is not prohibited can buy from licensed dealers and possess a weapon. So, in those countries, it is pretty common to see civilians walking around with a real gun in their gun holster. Check out Glock 17 vs 19, this might be interesting to you.
The countries Austria, Lichtenstein, and Switzerland are examples of the partially licensed regulation. It means that any non-prohibited person can buy repeating rifles and shotguns. A license is only needed if you want a handgun or semi-automatic firearms.
Another aspect that differs in various countries is that some require a “good reason” for the ownership of firearms while others don’t. A good reason in Austria is for example self-defense at home. Canada and New Zealand do not require and declaration of reasons for most types of weapons. Some restricted guns like handguns do need good reasons for possession.
On the opposite of most U.S. states, we can name China, Japan, and Myanmar. Those countries issue very few licenses and only a very limited number of people are allowed to own firearms.
In countries like Cambodia and Eritrea for a civilian, it is not allowed at all to own any type of firearms. It is totally prohibited.
These are just very limited examples but they already show the variety of gun laws in different countries. Some are very strict and some don’t have any regulation of the ownership for firearms.